You can get checks written to the name you use, and if you have a bank account under your legal name, sign the check with both names to deposit it. The bankers will think the check was written to someone else, so it’s good to make the signatures different, but it’s not fraud since the check was written to you, just under your preferred name.
I know for a lot of people the workplace can be hostile because you’d like to you know, earn real money like a real adult without feeling punched in the gut with dysphoria, and legal name changes can have a lot of stupid barriers and red tape. (In the US it varies by state, but there are a lot of barriers to queer people and the economically disadvantaged in general, such as fees of several hundred dollars, or requirements that you have lived in the same place for a year or more, which discriminates against transience, much more common for the poor, and for youth in general, especially queer youth who may have had to escape their families.) You often need money to fight this to GET that legal name change, and it’s kind of a catch-22 when you are trying to get out of living someone else’s life and be called by your own damn name. Co-workers can’t misname you if they only have one name for you.
Full-time jobs with big companies will often require more credentials, but you can find informal work that pays with cash or check and doesn’t ask for ID. And yes being queer can basically force you to live like an illegal immigrant in your own country, sucks don’t it.
A final warning: if whoever wrote the check is determined to out you, they can ask their bank to see who cashed the check, like if they claim they think there was fraud. If you give them no reason to think that isn’t your legal name, they probably would never think of this, but they can do it. Though you can always claim you don’t have a bank account and asked your brother/sister/mom/dad/etc to cash it for you.